San Jose in California has officially apologised to Chinese immigrants and their descendants for the role the city played in "systemic and institutional racism, xenophobia, and discrimination".
In May 1887 Chinatown with its dozens of stores and restaurants was burned to the ground, displacing about 1,400 residents, after the city council had declared the neighborhood a public nuisance.
In May, the town of Antioch, California became the first to apologise for its treatment of early Chinese immigrants, who dug secret tunnels to commute home from work because they were barred from walking city streets after sunset.
Chinese immigrants first arrived in the US in large numbers during the California Gold Rush in the mid-1800s. After many also to work on building the railroad or to take up other difficult industrial and agricultural jobs for low wages.