Oxfam India's Discrimination Report 2022 blames "societal and employers' prejudices" for women's lower wages. Other marginalised communities also suffered discrimination in the job market, the report found. These included those at the bottom of the caste system, tribespeople and members of the Muslim community.
"Discrimination in the labour market is when people with identical capabilities are treated differently because of their identity or social backgrounds," Amitabh Behar, Oxfam India's CEO, said. "The inequality for women and other social categories is not just due to poor access to education or work experience but because of discrimination."
Researchers from Oxfam found that every month on average, men earned 4,000 rupees ($50; £44) more than women, non-Muslims earned 7,000 rupees more than Muslims and those at the bottom of the caste system and tribespeople made 5,000 rupees less compared to others.
It's also well known that there is gender inequality in the labour force, with far fewer women in the workforce generally. in 2020-21 women made up only 25.1% of the labour force, which is not just considerably lower than many other countries such as Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa, but also a huge decline within the country from 42.7% in 2004-05.
"It is thus patriarchy that makes a large segment of women, who have the same or even higher qualifications as compared to men, stay outside employment, and this has shown no improvement over time."
the report says that "historically oppressed groups such as Dalits (formerly untouchables), tribals and religious minorities such as Muslims" also continue to face discrimination in accessing jobs, livelihoods, and agricultural credit.
"During the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic, the sharpest increase in unemployment - at 17% - was for Muslims," it adds.
Oxfam report: India women and Muslims earn less due to discrimination - BBC News
Two Indian sisters have been found hanging from a tree in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in a suspected case of abduction and rape. The girls, both below 18, belonged to the Dalit caste at the bottom of a deeply discriminatory Hindu hierarchy.
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