By mid-April, India is forecast to surpass China as the world's most populous country.
India's fertility rate has also fallen substantially in recent decades - from 5.7 births per woman in 1950 to two births per woman today.
Rising incomes and improved access to health and education have helped Indian women have fewer children than before, effectively flattening the growth curve.
Fertility rates have dipped below replacement levels - two births per woman - in 17 out of 22 states. (A replacement level is one at which new births are sufficient to maintain a steady population.)
The decline in birth rates has been faster in southern India than in the more populous north.
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